Environmental Studies

All Majors & Minors

Courses

  • ENV-100. Introduction to Environmental Studies 

    An introductory interdisciplinary course with readings and research on topics across all fields of environmental studies. This course examines environmental issues through many lenses, including ecology, economics, ethics, policy analysis, and the arts. Issues explored include (but are not limited to) population, energy, biodiversity and ecosystem conservation, food and agriculture, global warming, ozone depletion, air pollution, water resources management, and solid waste. Student projects include investigations of local environmental issues and applied conservation activities within the Ursinus and surrounding communities. Four hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV/CHEM-101Q. Introduction to Environmental Chemistry

    This course, intended for non-science majors, will examine selected topics in environmental chemistry through an understanding of basic chemical principles. Topics may include global warming, ozone depletion, pollution, and waste management. Three hours of lecture. Three semester hours. (LS if taken with ENV/CHEM-101LQ.)

    ENV/CHEM-101LQ. Laboratory in Introductory Environmental Chemistry

    Laboratory work related to CHEM-101Q. In addition to mastering basic chemistry laboratory skills, students will analyze air, water, and soil samples using a variety of techniques. Prerequisite: ENV/CHEM-101Q (or concurrently). Three hours of laboratory per week. One semester hour.

    ENV/GEOL-102Q. Geology: The Earth Around Us

    This course examines the current state of knowledge about the Earth and investigates the forces and processes that shape it. Topics include the formation of the Earth and solar system, the materials that comprise the Earth, the forces that currently act on, around, and within the planet, and the relationship of these forces to the processes and features we observe and/or experience at the Earth’s surface. To address complex and dynamic geologic processes, this course utilizes knowledge and methods from several disciplines in addition to geology, including biology, math, physics, and chemistry. This course does not count towards the ENV major or minor. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV/GEOL-105Q. Environmental Geology

    An introduction to environmental geosciences. Includes a study of the earth’s environmental systems: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, mineral resources, weathering, soils, rivers and flooding, ground water, climate, oceans and coastline erosion, energy sources, human populations, and environmental change. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV-110. Special Topics in Environmental Studies: Social Science 

    An introductory course with readings and research on environmental issues from the perspective of the social sciences. This course examines social dimensions of a selected environmental issue, drawing on disciplines including (but not limited to) economics, geography, policy analysis, and/or sociology. Issues that might be explored include (but are not limited to) biodiversity, cities, energy, food and agriculture, and climate change. Three hours per week, plus possible field trips or field work.Four semester hours. (SS.)

    ENV-111. Special Topics in Environmental Studies: Humanities

    An introductory course with readings and research on environmental issues from the perspective of the humanities. This course examines dimensions of a selected environmental issue, drawing on disciplines including (but not limited to) English, history, modern languages, and philosophy. Three hours per week.Four semester hours. (H)

    ENV-112. Special Topics in Environmental Studies: Natural Science

    An introductory course with readings and research on environmental issues from the perspective of the natural sciences. This course examines selected environmental issues, drawing on disciplines including (but not limited to) biology, chemistry, geology, oceanography, or other natural sciences. Issues that might be explored include (but are not limited to) energy, climate change, oceans, and/or waste. Three hours per week, possibly plus either field trips or three hours of laboratory, depending on the topic. Four semester hours.(LS, if lab or appropriate fieldwork associated with course.)

    ENV-215/BIO-220. Biology of Maya Mexico

    A study of the environments, fauna, and flora of tropical Mexico and their relation to the Maya people who inhabit that region. We will examine coral reefs, coastal waters, and lowland and highland forests, focusing on animals and plants of particular importance to the ecosystem they inhabit and to the Maya people, past and present. Prerequisite: None. Field investigations accompanied by readings, lectures, and an independent project resulting in a review or research paper. Four semester hours. This course is part of the UC in Maya Mexico Program.)

    ENV-216. Introduction to Food and Society

    This course provides an overview of the relationships between people and food by looking at a host of issues and cases that illustrate how we think (or don’t think carefully enough) about the food system, including what and how we eat, grow, process, engineer, market, buy (or sell), and feel about our food. Topics will change from year to year, but will include some or all of the following:

    • the geography of food and culture;

    • the relationship between the globalized/industrial and localized/sustainable food systems;

    • psychology, food choice, and the marketing of food;

    • the politics of consumer choice;

    • food choice and public health;

    • food and social change; and

    • the geopolitics of food

    Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (SS.)

    ENV/SOC-220. Environmental Justice

    This course explores the topic of environmental inequality. Focusing mostly on the United States, the course examines unequal exposure to pollution and other environmental health risks. The course also explores the environmental justice movement’s efforts to frame environmental inequality as a social problem. Prerequisite: ANTH-100, SOC-100, or permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (SS.)

    Students who have taken SOC-110 have fulfilled the prerequisite for this course.

    ENV/SOC-230. Food and Culture

    The human need for food is a biological fact. Yet humans have a relationship with food that is at once highly intimate—requiring its ingestion into their bodies—and utterly cultural—rooted in learned processes that make obtaining, preparing, and consuming food possible. Through the lens of anthropology, this course will examine a variety of issues inspired by this human–food relationship, including hunger, inequality, gender, morality, and nationalism. Prerequisite: SOC-100, ANTH-100, or permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (SS, G.)

    Students who have taken SOC-110 have fulfilled the prerequisite for this course.

    ENV-242. Globalization and the Environment

    An examination of the cultural, political, and economic linkages that characterize globalization and the consequences these linkages (e.g. through consumption practices) have for specific places, diverse peoples and cultures, and the environments where they live. Students will examine specific cases from Africa, South America, East and Southeast Asia, and Australia. Prerequisite: ENV 100 or permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Three lecture hours per week. Four semester hours. (G.)

    ENV/PHIL-248. Environmental Ethics

    The central issue in environmental ethics concerns what things in nature have moral standing and how conflicts of interest among them are to be resolved. After an introduction to ethical theory, topics to be covered include anthropocentrism, the moral status of non-human sentient beings, preservation of endangered species and the wilderness, holism versus individualism, and the land ethic. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (H.)

    ENV/BIO-250. Environmental Biology

    A study of the biological basis of environmental issues. Includes ecosystems, communities, populations, water, energy, geologic resources, biodiversity, weather/climate, pollution, agriculture/hunger, soil resources/pests, solid/toxic hazardous waste, toxicology, land use. Prerequisite: BIO-101Q or permission of the instructor. Three hours of lecture. Three hours of lab per week. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV/ANTH-252. Peoples and Their Environments

    Human cultural patterns and social institutions are adaptations to particular physical and social environments, and also have impacts on those environments. This course is concerned with the relationship between environments and subsistence systems on the one hand, and social/political institutions and belief systems on the other, using case studies from a variety of traditional societies. We will also consider the relationship between the global ecosystem and problems of Third World development, patterns of peasant production, causes and consequences of rapid population growth, and the fate of indigenous peoples. Prerequisite: ANTH-100, SOC-100, or permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (SS, G.)

    Students who have taken SOC-110 have fulfilled the prerequisite for this course.

    ENV/PSYC-260. Environmental Psychology

    This course is an overview of approaches to understanding the psychological relationship between human beings and the natural world and to a lesser extent our built environment. Humans, based on our nature and behavior, have created problems in the natural environment. In this course we will examine environmentally problematic human behavior from the perspective of all major psychological disciplines (behavioral, developmental, cognitive, social, Gestalt, and more). We will explore how we might use psychological modifications, based on these psychological approaches, to change thinking and behavior and become better stewards of the environment. A working knowledge of psychological principles and their application to solving global environmental issues will be developed. Prerequisite: PSYC-100. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (SS.)

    Note: Students who have already taken PSYC/ENV-210 Environmental Psychology cannot register for PSYC/ENV-260 Environmental Psychology.

    ENV/ENGL-262. The Environment in Literature

    Students in this course will study literature inspired by a variety of environments. Readings will range from classic essays “Nature” by Emerson and “Walking” by Thoreau to Terry Tempest Williams’ 1991 environmental/autobiographical study, “Refuge: An Unnatural History of Family and Place.” Ecocriticism, the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment will provide the theoretical framework for the course. Writing for the class will be half-analytical (critical responses to texts), and half-original, creative student writings about their own environments. Prerequisite: CIE-100. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (H.)

    ENV-268. Wetlands

    An exploration of the ecological, hydrological, and botanical features common to all wetlands, including the great variety of wetlands that exist due to differences in climate and geomorphology, and the many ways in which humans are connected to and modify wetlands. Weekend field trips to area wetlands will broaden our view of regional types and increase awareness and appreciation of the vital role wetlands play. Prerequisite: ENV 100 or permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Three hours of lecture per week plus three or four, one-day, weekend field trips. Four semester hours.

    ENV-272. Marine Mammal Conservation and Management

    This course addresses historical and current issues concerning the conservation and management of marine mammals, their habitats, and related marine resources. It integrates the biological sciences, policy, law, economics, and humanities (in the form of ethics and values) in presenting and engaging the students in discussions about the history of human-marine mammal interactions, changes in human values and attitudes about the marine environment, the role of human-marine mammal interactions in societal changes, and the policy arena that has developed around marine mammals in the past century. Prerequisite: ENV-100. Three hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV/SOC-288. Animals and Society 

    An examination of the sociology of human-animal relationships. Focusing mainly on the United States, the course examines the various ways in which people think about and interact with other animals. Prerequisite: SOC-100, ANTH-100, or permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (SS.)

    Students who have taken SOC-110 have fulfilled the prerequisite for this course.

    ENV-299. Readings in Environmental Studies 

    Individual study and directed reading of a particular topic or book within the discipline. Students will work closely with a member of the ENV faculty in selecting, reading, and discussing the topic, and in determining a proper written assignment. Prerequisites: ENV-100 and permission of the instructor. One semester hour.

    ENV/BIO-310. Biological Oceanography

    A study of the biological bases of ocean science. Topics discussed include: ocean basins, seawater physics and chemistry, currents, waves, tides, upwelling zones, tidal rhythms in organisms, ocean habitats/biota, marine virology, marine microbiology, plankton, trophic relationships, hydrothermal vent communities, coral reefs. Prerequisite: BIO-101Q or permission of the instructor. Three hours of lecture; three hours of laboratory per week. (Course may be conducted in part at a marine field station). Four semester hours. (LS.)

    Note: Students receiving credit for ENV/BIO 310 may not receive credit for ENV/BIO 270.

    ENV/BIO-320. Biology of the Neotropics

    A field study of Costa Rican tropical habitats including rain forests, montane forests, seasonally dry forests, and wetlands conducted at research sites throughout the county. Topics include diversity and natural history of key plants and animals, ecological interactions and evolutionary processes, and conservation. May include side trips to cloud forests or coral reefs. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor and BIO-101Q. Field investigations accompanied by readings, lectures, and a directed research project. Course will meet 15 hours on campus and three weeks in Costa Rica between the Fall and Spring semesters. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV/BIO-325. Insect Biology

    This course will introduce students to the insects—the most diverse group of organisms on the planet. We will examine the physiology, development, behavior, ecology, and evolution of insects to better understand why they are so successful, and special emphasis will be placed on understanding the importance of insects to human welfare. Students will learn the taxonomy of local insects by completing an insect collection. The laboratory component of this course will include insect rearing, experiments, and field trips to collect insects from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Prerequisite: BIO-101 and BIO-102; or permission of the instructor. Three hours of lecture; three hours of laboratory per week. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV/POL-326. Environmental Law

    The study of various state, national, and international legal patterns that have arisen to address environmental concerns. The environmental field will be used to examine the nature and effectiveness of civil, criminal, and administrative action to address a complicated and important social issue. Topics will include federal administrative law; international trade and environmental regulation; control of toxic substances and hazardous wastes; the impact of scientific uncertainty on regulation; federal regulatory programs; civil liability under federal regulations; citizen suits; and the preservation of natural areas. Prerequisites: POL-218 for Politics and International Relations majors or permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (SS.)

    ENV/BIO-330. Marine Biology

    A field-oriented study of the important marine habitats, including pelagic and benthic zones, and intertidal communities. Topics include marine biodiversity-plants, protists, invertebrates, vertebrates; marine ecology; primary production in the sea; estuaries; plankton; nektron; marine mammals. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and BIO-101Q. Lecture and field investigations. (Course conducted in part at a marine field station.) Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV-332. Urbanization and the Environment

    An introduction to the diversity of environmental transformations that accompany the process of urbanization and their implications for urban sustainability through exploration of the historical, political, social, economic, and ecological dimensions of the human-environment interactions .Field trips to local neighborhoods, nearby towns, and sites in Metropolitan Philadelphia are required. Prerequisite: ENV 100 or permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Three lecture hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV/BIO-336. Freshwater Biology

    Students in Freshwater Biology will study the chemical and physical properties of streams, lakes, rivers, wetlands, and groundwater. The communities of micro-organisms, algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates that inhabit these environments will be studied. Unique environments such as mountain, desert, and island freshwater ecosystems will be included. The impact of humans on freshwater communities throughout the world will be considered. The laboratory will include field and laboratory investigations and culminate in individual investigations by students. Prerequisites: BIO-101 and BIO-102 or permission of the instructor. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV-338. Forests and People

    An introduction to the diversity of human interactions and management issues associated with forests and their implications for sustainability. Thematic emphases include changing ideas about forests and management, including timber extraction, forestry conflicts, ecosystem services, and carbon sequestration; community forestry; non-timber forest products; and urban forestry. Readings will introduce students to human-environment dynamics in tropical, temperate, and boreal forest ecosystems. A one-day weekend field trip is required. Prerequisite: ENV 100 or permission of the instructor. Three lecture hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV-340W. Community and Sustainable Food Systems

    This course explores the theory that underlies food systems and agriculture from the local to global scales.  Emphasizing critical thinking about the relationship of theory and practice, this course examines trends in 20th and 21st century agricultural development and the changing relationship over that time between people, food choices, and eating habits. Drawing on food and agriculture readings and research in many disciplines, this synthesis course is designed to illuminate the importance of interdisciplinary analysis in understanding the complexity of problem solving in the realm of food and agriculture. Written and oral communication of critical thinking is emphasized. Prerequisite: ENV-100 or permission of the instructor. Three lecture hours and three field and/or laboratory hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV-350. Special Topics in Environmental Studies

    A study of a contemporary issue or specific subject area relating to the environment. Topics are often cross-disciplinary and vary according to the special interests of students and faculty. Potential topics include (but are not limited to): energy and the environment, environmental history, landscape ecology, natural hazards and vulnerability, and selected aspects of natural resource management. Prerequisite: as noted in special topics description. Independent written work required. Lab and field work required in some cases. Three hours of class per week, and in some cases three hours of laboratory, depending on the topic. Four semester hours. (LS, if lab associated with science-related course.)

    ENV 355/BIO-355. Conservation Biology

    Students in Conservation Biology will learn about the causes and the consequences of species extinctions and best management practices for conserving biodiversity. Concepts from genetics, ecology, and evolution will be applied to conservation, and the role of scientific research in conservation practice will be emphasized. Case studies in conservation will come from a variety of species and ecosystems, and special emphasis will be placed on conservation in human-dominated landscapes, such as the suburban landscape within which Ursinus College is situated. Prerequisite: BIO-101 or permission of the instructor. Three hours of lecture per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV-360. Conserving Biological Diversity

    A study of the conservation of biological diversity in the United States and abroad. Interdisciplinary analytical methods are used to investigate the loss and conservation of wildlife and habitats, with an emphasis on the development of conservation policy in the United States and comparative international case studies of endangered species protection. Specific topics include current trends in global biodiversity loss; the role of human values in biodiversity conservation; international biodiversity conservation strategies, initiatives at zoos and aquariums; and the protection of forests, rangelands, oceans, and coastal zones, birds, fish, marine mammals, and endangered species in the United States. Prerequisite: ENV-100. Three hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV 365/BIO-365. Ornithology

    A study of bird biology (anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology, phylogeny, and evolution) and the conservation issues that surround these most visible of terrestrial vertebrates. Because it will include field studies and natural history of Northeastern birds, a longer block of time is scheduled for one of the meeting times. Readings will come primarily from primary and secondary literature, with an emphasis on basic scientific research and its application to conservation. Prerequisite: BIO-101. Four semester hours.

    ENV-366. Ecological Change in Historical Perspective

    An introduction to longer-term perspectives on human-environment interactions, drawing on approaches found within environmental history, historical ecology, and historical geography. Particular emphasis is placed on case studies from North America and on regional ecosystems in the Eastern United States. Saturday or Sunday field trips to regional sites are required. Prerequisite: ENV 100 or permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Three lecture hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV-370. Global Climate Change

    This course focuses on the science of climate, investigating what climate is and what factors determine and influence the climate of an area. Both the natural and anthropogenic (human) forces that may cause climate change are presented from a geological and historical perspective in addition to covering current climatic trends and predictions for future climate. Prerequisite: ENV-100  and BIO-101, or permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV-372. Environmental Issues in Oceanography

    An introduction to the basic scientific concepts of oceanography, focusing on the aspects of oceanography that affect and are affected by humans. Topics include plate tectonics, properties of seawater (chemical and physical), coastal processes (coastal erosion, tsunamis, hurricanes), the effects of/on the ocean in climate change, el Niño/la Niña, the ocean as a resource (fisheries, mining), and pollution of the ocean (ocean dumping, mercury, and oil spills). Saturday or Sunday fieldtrips may be required. Prerequisite: ENV-100 and BIO-101, or permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Three hours of lecture; three hours of laboratory per week. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV-381. Internship

    An off-campus academic/work experience under the supervision of a faculty internship advisor and an on-site supervisor. Students must have completed 12 semester hours of environmental studies courses including ENV-100 and have permission of the supervising faculty member to be eligible for an internship. Students must document their experience according to the requirements delineated in the College catalogue section on Off-Campus Study. Open to juniors and seniors. The term during which the internship work is performed will be noted by one of the following letters, to be added immediately after the internship course number: A (fall), B (winter), C (spring), or D (summer). Internships undertaken abroad will be so indicated by the letter I. The intern must complete a minimum of 120 hours of work. Graded S/U. Three semester hours. (I.)

    ENV-382. Internship

    An off-campus academic/work experience under the supervision of a faculty internship advisor and an on-site supervisor. Students must have completed 12 semester hours of environmental studies courses including ENV-100 and have permission of the supervising faculty member to be eligible for an internship. Students must document their experience according to the requirements delineated in the College catalogue section on Off-Campus Study. Open to juniors and seniors. The term during which the internship work is performed will be noted by one of the following letters, to be added immediately after the internship course number: A (fall), B (winter), C (spring), or D (summer). Internships undertaken abroad will be so indicated by the letter I. The intern must complete a minimum of 160 hours of work. Graded S/U. Four semester hours. (I.)

    ENV-391. Directed Research

    Laboratory and/or field experiences under the direction of a faculty member and designed to introduce students to fundamental research procedures and data manipulation in the context of an original research project. This course can be taken more than once. Prerequisite: permission of a participating faculty member. Three hours of laboratory, field, or other data collection and/or analysis work per week. Graded S/U One semester hour. 

    ENV-392. Directed Research

    Laboratory and/or field experiences under the direction of a faculty member and designed to introduce students to fundamental research procedures and data manipulation in the context of an original research project. This course can be taken more than once. Prerequisite: permission of a participating faculty member. Six hours of laboratory, field, or other data collection and/or analysis work per week. Graded S/U Two semester hours. 

    ENV/BIO-415W. Ecology

    Studies of the interrelationships between organisms and their environments that determine their distribution and abundance in natural systems. Aspects of energy flow, biotic and abiotic limits, population growth and community organization are considered in the context of the ecosystem. Laboratories include local field work and emphasize techniques for collecting and analyzing data. Prerequisites: BIO-101Q and 102Q and 201W, or permission of the instructor. This course does not fulfill the ENV capstone requirement. Three hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory per week. Four semester hours. (LS.)

    ENV-428W. Political Ecology

    An introduction to an interdisciplinary field of inquiry concerned with the ecological and social drivers of environmental change and their politicization. Students will explore cases representing a diversity of ecosystems at local, regional, and national scales from a diversity of locations across the globe, including in Africa, North America, South America, and Southeast Asia. Prerequisite: ENV 100,a course from Area B, and junior standing, or permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Three lecture hours per week. Four semester hours. Note: Students who have already received credit for ENV-368 Political Ecology may not also receive credit for ENV-428. However, ENV-368 may be used to satisfy the requirement of an advanced critical thinking course. (SS.)

    ENV-430W. Advanced Critical Thinking in Environmental Studies

    An intensive seminar in critical theory and methods of interdisciplinary environmental problem solving designed to improve professional development and practice in the many fields of conservation. This course will help students develop an understanding of and technical proficiency in using qualitative analytical methods. Theory and cases will address environmental concerns at the local, regional, national, and international levels. Prerequisite: ENV-100, an introductory synthesis course, junior standing, or permission of the instructor. This course does not fulfill the ENV capstone requirement. Three hours per week. Four semester hours. (SS.)

    ENV 450W. Talkin’ Trash: Waste in America

    If nothing ever really “goes away,” as Barry Commoner discussed in 1971, then what happens to our waste once we dispose of it? This course will investigate aspects of the methods, pathways, and impacts of disposal and (re-)processing of waste as well as some of the social facets in the decision-making surrounding waste disposal, particularly in considering solid waste. Laboratories include site visits, fieldwork, and hands-on application of course material. This course fulfills the ENV capstone requirement and contains significant writing, oral, and experiential elements, including a group project. Prerequisites: ENV 100, at least one intermediate synthesis course or an advanced science course, and junior or senior standing, or permission of the instructor. Three lecture hours and three field and/or laboratory hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV-452W. The Land Ethic and Applied Conservation

    This course examines the process of developing and applying theory in conservation, and uses the life and work of Aldo Leopold as a lens through which to explore the challenges of developing and applying theory in the face of scientific and social complexity and uncertainty. Twenty-first century conservation has its roots in more than 100 years of theory and practice. Leopold’s seminal work in the mid-20th century integrated earlier social and scientific theory into a framework that became the foundation of the modern environmental movement and the field of environmental studies. In this class, we will explore the innovations Leopold brought to environmental theory and their comparative successes and failures in informing conservation and sustainability in the 21st century. Laboratories emphasize the hands-on application of theory and methods in the field. This course fulfills the ENV capstone requirement and contains significant writing, oral, and experiential elements, including a group project.  Prerequisites: ENV 100, at least one intermediate synthesis course or an advanced science course, and junior or senior standing, or permission of the instructor. Three lecture hours and three field and/or laboratory hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV-454W. Sustainability in Urbanizing Watersheds

    This course explores the theory and practice of sustainability interventions in urbanizing watersheds.  Emphasizing the role that environmental education and outreach activities play in improving watershed health, this course examines diverse forms of environmental management undertaken to improve ecosystem services and watershed health of local watersheds. Drawing on land-use change, watershed health, and environmental education literatures, this capstone course is designed to illuminate the importance of interdisciplinary analysis for understanding how to improve watershed health. Written and oral communication of critical thinking is emphasized. Laboratories include local field work, experience with analytical techniques, and field trips in the Collegeville region. This course fulfills the ENV capstone requirement and contains significant writing, oral, and experiential elements, including a group project. Prerequisites: ENV 100, at least one intermediate synthesis course or an advanced science, and junior or senior standing, or permission of the instructor. Three lecture hours and three field and/or laboratory hours per week. Four semester hours.

    ENV-481W. Research/Independent Work

    An independent project conducted using research methods in environmental studies, and including original work in the field, laboratory, or other scholarly forum. Students must have completed 12 semester hours of environmental studies courses including ENV-100 or have permission of their adviser to be eligible for independent research. Four semester hours. (I.)

    ENV-482W. Research/Independent Work

    See course description for ENV-481W. Four semester hours. (I.)

    ENV-491W. Research/Independent Work

    Students who are eligible for departmental honors can complete independent research work in this course. Work should be comprised of an independent project conducted using research methods in environmental studies, and including original work in the field, laboratory, or other scholarly forum. Students must have completed 12 semester hours of environmental studies courses including ENV-100 or have permission of their adviser to be eligible for independent research. Four semester hours. (I)

    ENV-492W. Research/Independent Work

    See course description for ENV-491W. Four semester hours. (I)