This project studies the ambiguity of gender in Francophone literature in the 19th century, specifically in the works written by female authors: George Sand, Rachilde, and Renee Vivien. During the lone nineteenth century, George Sand, Rachilde, and Renee Vivien presented atypical female characters: women who were independent, fierce, gender benders whose relationships were seen as controversial. Born female but raised male, these women used the powers associated with masculinity to try and subvert the patriarchal discourse of the time. This project will focus on how the writers’ own personal lives influenced their work, how masculine and feminine genders were defined at the time, and how these specific writers define them in their works. I will also examine the idea of non-binary gender in a binary society.